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Rough outline for podcast (subject to change)

The first part of this episode is a brief introduction to the podcast; who I am, what my motivation is for doing this, and what I hope to achieve, and in the second part, we describe the geography of Greece (Hellas) and its natural resources

In this episode, we take a look at Creation, according to the Greeks; the Titanomachy, the Gigantomachy, and the ascendancy of the Olympian Gods; the creation of the first humans; the story of Prometheus and the first woman, Pandora; Deucalion and the great flood; and the progenitors of the various Greek tribes

In this episode, we leave the realm of myth and trace the development of early primate/human activity in Greece in the Paleolithic Period (Old Stone Age), culminating in the domestication of plants and animals, the rise of the earliest villages, and the development of metallurgy in the Neolithic Period (New Stone Age)

In this episode, we discuss the archaeological evidence for the early Bronze Age on mainland Greece and the Cycladic Islands; the arrival of the Indo-Europeans in Greece (known as the proto-Greeks); and the rediscovery and excavation of three legendary Bronze Age cities (Troy, Knossos, and Mycenae) in the latter part of the 19th century AD by the infamous Heinrich Schliemann and Sir Arthur Evans that brought to light the Bronze Age peoples who would become known as the "Minoans" and "Mycenaeans"

In this episode, we discuss the myths and archaeological evidence for the Minoans on Crete, who were an early source of cultural inspiration for the Mycenaean Greeks; the palace complexes at Knossos (north), Phaistos (south), Mallia (northeast), and Zakros (east); the volcanic eruption that blew apart the island of Thera in the mid-17th century BC and was a catalyst for the decline of the Minoan civilization (the inspiration for Plato's infamous description of Atlantis?); the ultimate subordination of the Minoans by the Mycenaean Greeks in the 15th and 14th centuries BC; and the decipherment of Linear B (an early form of Greek) by Michael Ventris in the mid-20th century AD

In this episode, we discuss the archaeological evidence of the Mycenaean Greeks of the late Bronze Age (ca. 1650-1250 BC); particularly from the major palace centers in the Argolid at Mycenae and Tiryns, Athens in Attica, the island of Salamis, Thebes and Orchomenos in Boeotia, Iolcos in Thessaly, Amyclae (which is Sparta) in Laconia, and Pylos in Messenia; what the Linear B tablets can tell us about their society, economy, and religion; and their extensive trade network that spanned the entire Mediterranean

In this episode, we briefly discuss the Trojan War myth; the historical evidence for Mycenaean conflict in the eastern Mediterranean and Anatolia (by looking at the Egyptian and Hittite records); the archaeological evidence for layer VI and VII on the citadel of Hisarlik, i.e. ancient Troy (Wilion/Ilion); the Bronze Age collapse in both Greece and the Near East and its possible causes/explanations; the mysterious group of people known as the "Sea Peoples"; and the so-called "Dorian Invasion" southwards into Greece

In this episode, we discuss the archaeological evidence for the early "Dark Age" during the 11th and 10th centuries BC, particularly at the site of Nichoria in Messenia and the pottery of the Sub-Mycenaean and Protogeometic periods; the emigration of mainland Greeks to the Aegean islands and the western coast of Anatolia; and the first great author of ancient Greece, a man named Homer, who gives us insight into the society and culture of the early Dark Age through his two great epic poems---the Iliad and the Odyssey

In this episode, we discuss the archaeological evidence for the late "Dark Age" during the 9th and early 8th centuries BC, especially the Heroon at Lefkandi and the Keremeikos at Athens; Greece's cultural reawakening and reconnection with the Near East thanks to their contact with the Phoenicians; the development of the Greek alphabet and its impact on Greek cultural development; the establishment of three trading posts/colonies at El-Mina (in the Levant) and Pithekoussai and Cumae (central Italy); and the evolution of "Geometric" vase painting, especially on kraters and amphoras and their role in the funerary process
In this episode, we discuss the philosophy behind early Greek religion that was formalized in writing by Homer and Hesiod; the rituals performed when the Greeks worshipped their deities; the evidence for the earliest sanctuaries in the 8th century BC that developed hand-in-hand with the city-state and their increasing wealth (as seen through votive offerings); the development of the idea of Panhellenism; and the foundation myths, archaeological evidence, and importance for the four predominant Panhellenic sanctuaries that gained massive popularity in the 8th and 7th centuries BC (the sanctuaries of Zeus and Hera at Olympia, the sanctuaries of Apollo and Artemis at Delos, the sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi, and the sanctuaries of Zeus and Dione at Dodona)

In this episode, we discuss the community (demos), household (oikos), and economy (oikonomia) in the late "Dark Age"; its role as the foundations that led to the evolution of the city-state (polis) into a socio-political structure that brought about the transition from the "Dark Age" into the Archaic Period; and later Greek philosophical thought on the polis and polis identity and what it means to live in a polis beyond its physical space

In this episode, we discuss the transitional governments in the early stages of the centrally unified polis (oligarchia and aristokratia), as the waning power of the basileis becomes supplanted by a small landowning group of nobles; the economic and social divisions between the nobles and commoners brought on by a spike in population in Greece; and the second great author of ancient Greece, a man named Hesiod, who speaks to us about life and society in the emerging polis from the point of view of the ordinary citizen, in his Works and Days

In this episode, we discuss the revolutionary changes in warfare that took place in the 8th and 7th centuries BC that were strictly Greek and reflect the abstract nature of the polis; the type of armor worn and weaponry employed by a typical hoplite; the organization and training of military forces; their application of tactics in a typical battle sequence; the cultic practices of the bloodlust god, Ares, who personifies the grim and horrific aspects of warfare; and the Lelantine War, the first large-scale war on the Greek record after the mythical Trojan War and the first instance in which these military changes were employed

In this episode, we discuss the causes of colonization (shortage of land, trade, and civil strife); the Greek emigration westward into southern Italy and Sicily, the coasts of southern France and eastern Spain, and on the islands of Corsica and Sardinia during the 8th, 7th, and 6th centuries BC; the development of the trireme by the Phoenicians/the Corinthians in order to protect their maritime trade networks from roving bands of pirates looking for ships laden with exotic goods; and their growing tensions in the central and western Mediterranean Sea with the Etruscans and the Phoenicians (specifically the Carthaginians) until around 550 BC

In this episode, we discuss the Greek emigration northeastward into the Chalkidiki, Thrace, Hellespont, Bosporus, Black Sea, and southwards into northern Africa during the 7th and 6th centuries BC; the reigns of the Lydian and Egyptian kings of the 26th Saite Dynasty and their relations with the Greeks until around 550 BC; and the development of coinage (first in Lydia and then its widespread adoption and adaptation by the Greeks in the 6th century BC)

In this episode, we discuss the new political phenomena arising in various parts of the Greek world in the 7th and 6th centuries BC, called tyranny, by focusing on four poleis in the Peloponnese in particular as case studies for its cause: Pheidon of Argos (the military cause), Kypselos and Periander of Corinth (the economic cause), Cleisthenes of Sicyon (the ethnic cause), and Theogenes of Megara (the unsuccessful attempt)

In this episode, we discuss the innovation taking place during the 7th and 6th centuries BC in the realm of vase painting (Orientalizing, Protocorinthian, Protoattic, black-figure, and red-figure), statuary (kouros/kore and reliefs), and architecture (Doric/Ionic temples, treasuries, and stoas) by looking at some notable works of Archaic art and architecture

In this episode, we discuss the literary changes that took place in the 7th and 6th centuries BC (moving away from grand epic to the more personalized lyric, elegiac, and iambic forms of poetry); and part 1 of 2 on the influential poets whose writings gives us insight into the economic, social, and political happenings that reshaped archaic age Greece

In this episode, we discuss part 2 of 2 on the influential poets whose writings gives us insight into the economic, social, and political happenings that reshaped archaic age Greece; in particular, we look at the turbulent history of late 7th and early 6th century BC Mytilene, which finds itself at the intersection of two great poets (Alcaeus and Sappho), tyranny, and one of the so-called "Seven Sages" (Pittacus), making it a perfect case study; and in response to all of these enormous economic, social, and political changes arose the phenomenon of the lawgiver, many of which were among the "Seven Sages"

In this episode, we describe the new schools of thought that began to percolate in the 6th century BC about our existence and role in this universe absent from the gods, and we detail the lives, influences, and various theories put forth by the earliest of these so-called "Pre-Socratic" philosophers; included among them are Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes, Pherecydes, Pythagoras, Xenophanes, and Heraclitus

In this episode, we discuss the culturally unifying importance of Panhellenic festivals in the Greek world; the history and evolution of the athletic program of the Ancient Olympic games; how the various athletic events that the Greeks participated in were performed; some famous athletes and the larger than life quality they achieved; and the four major Panhellenic festivals (Olympic, Pythian, Isthmian, and Nemean)

In this episode, we discuss the early history of the polis of Lacadaemon (Sparta), including their expansion in the southern Peloponnesus with the 1st and 2nd Messenian Wars (that brought about the formation of the helot system of slavery); Spartan society's social-class tensions and civil strife that led to reform, supposedly by the semi-mythical lawgiver Lykurgas in the 8th century BC, but more likely a gradual process during the 7th and 6th centuries BC; its military growing pains as Sparta suffered a series of losses to their neighbors, Argos (in the Argolid) and Tegea (in southern Arcadia), before eventually defeating them; the life of Chilon, one of the Seven Sages, and his role in making amendments to the Spartan constitution and in guiding foreign policy; and Sparta's ultimate rise to hegemony over their Peloponnesian and Isthmian neighbors, resulting in what modern scholars call the "Peloponnesian League"

In this episode, we discuss the inner-workings of Sparta's unique political, economic, and social system; included are the diarchy (dual hereditary kingship), the Gerousia (council of elders), the apella assembly), and the ephors (judicial overseers); the so-called Lykurgan land reform and the devolution of Sparta's economy; the roles of the Helots (slaves), the Perioikoi (non-citizens), and Spartan women; and the various steps of the agoge (Sparta's education and military training system) which created Spartiatai (full-citizen males)

In this episode, we discuss the early history of Athens beginning with its mythical past, and how and why the later Athenians promoted and propogandized these myths, with a particular focus on their first king Cecrops, the contest between Athena and Poseidon for the city's patronage, the birth of Ericthonius (the "love" child of Hephaistos-Athena-Gaia) who would go onto become king, the life of Theseus, and the death of the final king Kodras fighting the Heracleidae; in historical times, the abolishment of the monarchy in the Dark Ages that gave rise to the oligarchic government (first by the Medontidai and then the Eupatridai); the social organizations of the Athenians; and finally the social and economic crises at the end of the 7th century BC that brought about an unsuccessful tyranny attempt by an Olympic athlete named Cylon and Athens' first written constitution, orchestrated by a shadowy figure named Draco

In this episode, we discuss the life and deeds of the great Athenian statesman, Solon, who from his position of sole archonship, enacted various economic, political, and legal reforms that would later form the backbone for Athenian democracy in the Classical Period, but in doing so he took a moderate stance to appease everyone, which didn't quiet the ongoing social and economic problems of the state and shortly thereafter factionalism set in, leading to the next phase of Athenian political history (in which aristocratic infighting led to instability for decades and ultimately to tyranny)

In this episode, we discuss the ascension of Peisistratos as the first tyrant of Athens and the political maneuverings that he and his two sons, Hippias and Hipparchus, took in maintaining (and sometimes regaining) their position, which included armed warfare, trickery, political marriages, and the expulsion of many of their political enemies (who would go and found several colonies in Athens' name); the economic reforms that Peisistratos and his two sons undertook; their patronage of the arts and public works in the Agora and Acropolis, as well as at other religious sanctuaries in Attica; their encouragement of religious festivals, especially the Greater Panathenaia and the Dionysia; and the ultimate dissolution of the tyranny brought about by the assassination of Hipparchus, the susbsequent cruelty and expulsion of Hippias, and the ascendency of Cleisthenes (with the help of the Spartans)

In this episode, we discuss the political struggle between Isagoras (who was now backed by the Spartan military) and Cleisthenes who ultimately was victorious, which allowed him to institute his overhaul of the Athenian constitution; the different democratic changes that he instituted in regards to the Boule and Ekklesia; and the consequences (both good and bad) from this new revolutionary government, including the gerrymandering of Attica into new tribes, the reorganization of the military structure, Athens' first diplomatic folly with the Persians, and the threat of war with Thebes, Corinth, Sparta, Chalcis, and Aegina

In this episode, part 1 of 2 on the Greco-Etruscan-Carthaginian relations during the 6th/5th centuries BC, we discuss Carthage's foundation myths and early history as just another Phoenician colony, Tyre's decline and Carthage's rise as the dominant economic superpower in the western Mediterranean, the alliance between the Carthaginians and Etruscans against the western Greeks, and the Battle of Alalia and its aftermath

In this episode, part 2 of 2 on the Greco-Etruscan-Carthaginian relations during the 6th/5th centuries BC, we discuss the tyrannies that arose and fell in Sicily in the first half of the 5th century BC at Rhegium/Zancle (Messana), Himera, Syracuse, Gela, and Akragas; the First Greco-Punic War and its aftermath/legacy; the decline of Etruscan power in Campania; the changes in the Carthaginian constitution following the war; and finally, the sea explorations of Himilco (northwest Europe) and Hanno the Navigator (western Africa)

In this episode, we discuss the life, influences, drawbacks, and positives of the “Father of History”, Herodotus; and the political events of the Near East in the 7th and early 6th centuries BC, including the rise of the Medians and Neo-Babylonians and their destruction of the Assyrian Empire, and culminating with a young vassal king from Anshan, named Cyrus, who overthrew the Medes and elevated the Achaemenid Persians among the other chief powers of the time (the Lydians, the Neo-Babylonians, and the Egyptians)

In this episode, we discuss Cyrus' conquests of the Lydian kingdom, the Greek city-states in western Anatolia, the nomadic step-tribes of central Asia, and the Neo-Babylonian Empire; the contingents and battle tactics of his multi-ethnic military; the administration of his multi-state empire that stretched from Anatolia in the west to the northwestern regions of India in the east; and his other deeds and qualities that were deemed to be so exceptional by later historians that he earned the moniker "the Great"

In this episode, we discuss events in the eastern Mediterranean during the reign of the Persian king, Cambyses, with a particular focus on the achievements and the political maneuverings between the Egyptian kings Amasis II and Psammetichos III, the Cyrenaean kings Battos III and Arkesilaos III, the Samian tyrant Polykrates, and the Naxian tyrant Lygdamis; Cambyses' successful conquests of Cyprus and Egypt; his failed campaigns in north Africa against the Nubians, Cyrenaeans, and Carthaginians; and his “madness" (as told by Herodotus) which ultimately brought his reign to an end

In this episode, we discuss the ascension of Darius to the Persian throne; his consolidation of the empire and eastern campaigns; Zoroastrianism and the role Ahura-Mazda played in his reign; and his reform program, with a special focus on his creation of a new script (Old Persian), his new capital of Persepolis, his bureaucratic satrapies, the Royal Road, his "sort of" Red Sea/Nile River canal, and the creation of and influence of the gold "Daric"

In this episode, we discuss the final subjugation of the Ionian poleis to Persian-backed tyrannies, Darius' failed invasion of Scythia, Megabazos' conquest of Thrace, and the submission of Macedon that brought Persia right up to the foothills of Mt Olympus, at the very borders of mainland Greece; the diplomatic follies of the Athenians; and whether war was or was not inevitable, at least in the last decade of the 500s BC

In this episode, we discuss the events of the Ionian Revolt from the Persian Empire, including the failed Naxos expedition, Miletus' role in the rebellion and its spread throughout the western coast of Asia Minor and Cyprus, the Greek sack of Sardis, the three-pronged Persian counteroffensive in Cyprus, Caria, Ionia, the Hellespont, and the Propontis, the Persian naval victory at Lade, and their subsequent sack of Miletus; the Spartan destruction of Argos at Sepeia; the early life of one of Athens' key political figures for the next four decades, Themistocles; and the internal political happenings of Athens during the 490s BC 

In this episode, we discuss the events leading up to the first Persian invasion of Greece (in 490 BC), including both sides preparations for war, shifting alliances amongst the Greeks and Persians, and regnal squabbles at Sparta; the Battle of Marathon itself and its aftermath; the folklore that surrounded the battle afterwards; the ongoing military feud between the Athenians and Aeginetans; and the internal political happenings at Athens during the 480s BC

In this episode, we discuss the death of Darius and the ascension of Xerxes to the Persian throne; Xerxes' preparations for a much larger, second Persian invasion of Greece (in 480 BC); the formation of the Hellenic League and their own preparations and tactical maneuverings in order to defend Greek liberty against Persia; and the simultaneous multi-day land and naval battles at Thermopylae and Artemision in central Greece

In this episode, we discuss the aftermath of the Greek loss at Thermopylae, as the Persians advance southwards to Athens and the rest of the Greeks flee to Salamis and to the Peloponnese; the lead-up to and the naval Battle of Salamis (480 BC) itself, in which Themistocles tricks the Persians into fighting in the narrows between Attica and Salamis, resulting in a stunning Greek victory at sea; and the battle's aftermath, which sees Xerxes' fleet and the bulk of his army retreat back to Asia

In this episode, we discuss the tensions between the Spartan-Athenian alliance during the winter of 480/79 BC over how to deal with the lingering Persian threat; Mardonios' strategy of turning the Athenians and Spartans against each other; the eventual makeup (sort of) of Athens and Sparta; the combined Greek counterattack against the Persians in spring 479 BC, culminating in the twin victories at Plataea (Boeotia) and Mykale (Ionia), which effectively ended the first phase of the Greco-Persian Wars; and the Athenians' first attempt on the Thracian Chersonese, which would come to define their foreign policy in the rest of the century

In this episode, we discuss the aftermath of the Persian Wars and how the Athenians and Spartans both come to terms with the new state of affairs; the formation of the Delian League under Athens to carry on the war effort against Persia at sea; the political factions in Athens (Themistocles / Xanthippos vs Cimon / Aristides) and Sparta (Leotychidas / Pausanias vs Pleistarchos) and their struggle to dictate Athenian-Spartan foreign policy in the 470s BC

In this episode, we discuss the 460s BC; the battle of the Eurymedon River (Asia Minor), which sees Cimon winning a dual land and naval victory over the Persians; Sparta's clashes with the anti-Spartan coalition of Argos, Tegea, Elis, and Mantinea; the assassination of Xerxes and eventual ascension to the Persian throne of his son, Artaxerxes; Themistocles' medism trial and his defection to the court of Artaxerxes; the revolt of Thasos from the Delian League; the debilitating earthquake in the Peloponnese and the resulting Helot revolt; the political downfall and ostracism of Cimon, which leads to the severing of the Athenian-Spartan alliance; and the democratic reforms, assassination of Ephialtes, and ascendency of Pericles

In this episode, we discuss the years spanning 461-454 BC, covering the early part of the First Peloponnesian War / "The Undeclared War" 

In this episode, we discuss the years spanning 454-446 BC, covering Athens' increasingly imperialistic behavior and the final years of the First Peloponnesian War

In this episode, we discuss the democratic machinations of Classical Athens in the mid-to-late 5th century BC; including the role that the Athenian statesman Pericles had on the radicalization of Athenian democracy, the magistracies, the ekklesia, the boule and prytaneis, the law courts and jurors, contemporary critiques of Athenian democracy, and the economics of running the democracy (through a system of public donations known as the liturgies)

In this episode, we discuss the various types of ancient Greek musical instruments during the Classical Period and how and for what purpose they were used; and the lives and works of the three great 5th century BC lyric poets who pioneered the genre of the epinikion (victory ode)—Simonides of Ceos (556-468 BC), Bacchylides of Ceos (ca. 525-ca. 450 BC), and Pindar of Thebes (522-443 BC), as well as their connections with the lesser known poets Corrina of Tanagra, Lasos of Hermione, and Timocreon of Rhodes

046 Monsters and Heroes
In this episode, we discuss the importance of heroes in Greek mythology, the creation of various beasts and monsters, and the lives and accomplishments of various mythic heroes who often times fought against these monsters; including Cadmus of Thebes and the Ismenian Dragon, Perseus of Argos and the Gorgon Medusa;  Bellerophon of Corinth, Pegasus, and the Chimaera; the cursed family of Pelops and the Oath of Tyndareus; the Lapiths, the Centaurs, and the Centauromachy; Meleager, Atalanta, and the Caledonian Boar Hunt; and the troublemaking of Pirithous and Theseus

047 Herakles: From Zero to Hero
In this episode, we discuss the iconography of Herakles, his early myths, his infamous twelve labors, his later life, his heroic persona, how he was worshipped as a pan-Hellenic divine hero, some of his cults, including those in initiatory and pederastic contexts, as a guardian of the city, and as a military and wrestling champion; and his role as a founder of many Greek cities and as apostle of Hellenism in the western Mediterranean

048 Food, Wine, and the Symposium
In this episode, we discuss how, when, and where different subgroups of ancient Greeks consumed food each day; what particular foods were part of each's diet; some famous early cookbook authors; viticulture and the economic, religious, and medicinal role of winethe festival of Anthesteria in the month of Anthesterion (late February/early March), which celebrated the beginning of spring and marked the ceremonious opening of the wine jars from the previous autumn's harvestand the symposium (drinking-party), an aristocratic social event which included philosophical/light-hearted discussions, musical performances, song-singing, storytelling, flirting, and competitions (such as kottabos, aka ancient wine pong)

**Special Guest Episode on Drinking and 'Sportsing' w/Amy Pistone**
In this special guest episode, I am joined by Dr Amy Pistone to discuss ancient Greek drinking culture (both proper and improper), with a side of sports, aka how college students can relate to the ancient Greeks**‬

049 Theater and the Dionysia
In this episode, we discuss the origins of drama in the Attic countryside, its relation to the cult of Dionysos, and its introduction to Athens in the late 6th century BC; its evolution from a chorus of satyrs singing dithyrambs to the addition of actors (aka Thespians from the first one, Thespis); the Dionysia festivals celebrating the cultivation of vines, both "Rural" throughout Attica during the month of Poseideon (late December/early January) and "City" in Athens during the month of Elaphebolion (late March/early April), as well as the Lenaia in the month of Gamelion (late January/early February); the physical space and early evolution of the theater in the sanctuary of Dionysios Eleuthereos on the southern slope of the Athenian acropolis; the various roles of the actors and the chorus and their costumes; the components of tragic and comedic plays; and drama's civic importance in 5th century BC Athens

050 Early Tragedy and Aeschylus
In this episode, we discuss what is known about the lives and works of the earliest tragic poets that set the stage for the first great Athenian playwright, Aeschylus, to make all sorts of theatrical innovations at the onset of the Classical Period; and the historicity and some of the major themes of his seven surviving plays, which include The PersiansPrometheus BoundSeven Against ThebesThe Suppliants, and the trilogy known as The Oresteia (whose three plays includes AgamemnonThe Libation Bearers, and The Eumenides)

In this episode, we discuss the life, theatrical innovations, and tragic works of the second great Athenian playwright, Sophocles; and the historicity and some of the major themes of his seven surviving plays, which include AntigoneAjaxOedipus RexThe Women of TrachisPhiloctetesElectra, and Oedipus at Colonus

In this episode, we discuss the life, theatrical innovations, and tragic works of the third great Athenian playwright, Euripides; and the historicity and some of the major themes of his earliest surviving plays, which include Cyclops, Rhesus, Alcestis, Medea, and Hippolytus

In this episode, we discuss the historicity and some of the major themes of Euripides' surviving plays that he produced against the backdrop of the Peloponnesian War, which include The Children of HeraklesAndromacheHecubaThe SuppliantsElectraThe Madness of HeraklesThe Trojan WomenIphigenia in TaurisIonHelenThe Phoenician WomenOrestes, and Iphigenia at Aulis (excluding The Bacchae)

In this episode, we discuss the Lenaia, the intricacies of Athenian Old Comedy, and what is known about the lives and works of the earliest comedic poets, who set the stage for Aristophanes, whose eleven surviving works effectively define the genre today, which include The AcharniansThe KnightsThe CloudsThe WaspsPeaceThe BirdsLysistrataThe Women at the ThesmophoriaThe FrogsThe Assembly Women, and Wealth
In this episode, we discuss the Phrygian goddess Cybele; her cult's transportation to Greece in the 6th century BC; her assimilation with the cults of Gaia, Rhea, and Demeter as the Great Mother and as a civic protector (particularly in Athens); her cultic rites and influence on Dionysos (Bacchus), particularly music, wine, and an ecstatic following; the myths of two other Phrygian deities, Agdistis and Attis; some of the myths and the iconography of Dionysos and his companions (Silenus, Pan, the Satyrs, and the Maenads); the historicity and major themes of Euripides’ The Bacchae ("The Followers of Bacchus"); and the cultic elements of Dionysiac worship (particularly in Delphi, Boeotia, and the Peloponnese)

056 Classical Sculptures
In this episode, we discuss the innovation during the 5th century BC in the realm of free-standing statuary in the round, stelai, and architectural relief; included are the Kritios Boy and the Angelitos' Athena from the "Persian debris", the Tyrannicides by Antenor, the Charioteer of Delphi, the Artemision Zeus/Poseidon, the Riace Warriors, the Statue of Zeus Carrying Ganymede, the Mourning Athena, the Exaltation of the Flowers, the Enthroned Goddess, the Charioteer of Motya, the Relief of Hades and Persephone Enthroned, the Relief of Aphrodite and Hermes in a Chariot Drawn by Eros and Psyche, the Diskobolos (Discus Thrower) of Myron, the Doryphoros (Spear-Bearer) and Diadoumenos (Youth Tying a Headband) of Polykleitos, the Helmeted Athena, the Wound Amazon, the Cat Stele, and Stele of Hegeso

057 Classical Paintings
In this episode, we discuss the innovation during the 5th century BC in the realm of vase, wooden panel, and wall paintings; included are some of the works of the Kleoprades Painter, the Berlin Painter, Onesimos, the Brygos Painter, the Pistoxenos Painter, Sotades, the Niobid Painter, Polygnotos, Mikon, Timarete, Parrhasios, Zeuxis, Apollodoros, the Achilles Painter, the Penthesilea Painter, the Pisticci Painter, the Meidias Painter, as well as the Tomb of the Diver at Poseidonia (Paestum) and the Pitsa Panels

058 Classical Temples
In this episode, we discuss the innovation during the 5th century BC in the realm of temple building (outside of Attica); included are the Temple of Aphaia at Aegina, the Temple of Zeus at Olympia, the Temple of Hera II at Poseidonia (Paestum), the Temple of Victory at Himera, the Temple of Apollo at Syracuse, the Valley of the Temples at Akragas, the Temple of Hera at Selinus, the unfinished temple at Segesta, and the Temple of Apollo at Bassae

059 Olympian Zeus
In this episode, we discuss the myths, iconography, and cultic worship of Zeus, the mighty patriarch who ruled over Mount Olympus; included are his Indo-European origins as the supreme sky god; his role as the god who maintains order and justice by presided over normative civic, social, and family relationships; his connection with Themis (Divine Law), Nemesis (Revenge), and the three Moirai (the Fates); his worship as a rain-making, agricultural deity, both on mountain peaks (Attica and Crete) and the Underworld (symbolizing the regenerative life cycle)his worship in Arcadia and its relationship to werewolf transformation and human sacrifice; his oracles at Dodone and Siwa (where he was syncretized with Libyan god Ammon); his Pan-Hellenic sanctuary at Olympia; his connection with Nike (Victory) and his worship as a savior or bringer of freedom against foreign foes (Persia and Carthage); and the "philosophical Zeus" that arose when many people began to question polytheistic religions during the Hellenistic Period

060 Hades and the Underworld
In this episode, we discuss the mysterious, shadowy figure of Hades (Lord of the Underworld); the Greek perception of the afterlife and those who dwell in it; necromancy (the summoning of the dead to answer questions); where and how one can make a katabasis (decent) into the Underworld; and Homer's description of the abode of Hades in Book Eleven of the Odyssey and then comparing and contrasting that with the description found in Virgil's Aeneid Book Six, all while taking a tour of the Underworld, its major features, and its inhabitants

061 Demeter and Persephone: The "Two Goddesses"
In this episode, we 
discuss the primordial goddess Gaia (the personification of Mother Earth) and her relationship with Demeter, the goddess of agriculture; the myths and iconography of Demeter and her daughter Persephone / Kore (including the daughter's abduction by Hades); Persephone's dual role as Queen of the Underworld and an agriculture goddess, like her mother; and the various ways in which these two were worshipped together, particularly in the Peloponnese and Magna Graecia (but not including their Attic cults) 

062 Agricultural Festivals
In this episode, we discuss the Attic calendar year with a focus on the agricultural festivals and ceremonies; starting in the fall at the time of sowing we work our way around the year, month-by-month, until it is time to sow once again; particular attention is given to the Thesmophoria and the Eleusinian Mysteries but a dozen or so other festivals are described, including the Pyanepsia, the Oschophoria, the Chalkeia, the Proerosia, the Apaturia, the Haloa, the Thargelia, the Skira, the Kronia, the Herakleia, and the Boedromia (excluded are the Rural Dionysia, the Lenaia, the City Dionysia, and the Anthesteria)

063 Poseidon: The Lord of the Sea

In this episode, we discuss the myths, iconography, and cultic worship of Poseidon, the violent and unpredictable god who ruled over the sea

064 Athena: The Protectress of Athens
In this episode, we discuss the myths, iconography, and cultic worship of Athena, the goddess of wisdom, craftsmanship, and strategic warfare who served as a kind of symbol for the city of Athens and civilization in general

065 The Athenian Acropolis
In this episode, we discuss the construction, the history, and the significance of the main buildings on the Athenian Acropolis (the Parthenon, The Propylaia, The Temple of Athena Nike, the Erechtheion, and a few others); together, these buildings mark the high point of the glorification of Athens, and the Acropolis thus became a confident assertion of Athens’ cultural leadership of Greece, a bold endorsement of her self-image, and a dazzling instrument of political propaganda, with the result that many people later would consider the Athenian Acropolis to be the symbol of the legacy and the glories of Classical Greece

066 The Athenian Agora

In this episode, we discuss the construction, the history, and the significance of the Athenian Agora, and a description of its many civic buildings that served as the nerve center for Athenian democracy, as well as the rest of the Periclean Building Program (the Temple of Hephaestus and Odeon in Athens, the Telesterion at Eleusis, and the Temple of Poseidon at Cape Sounion)

067 Hephaistos and Hermes
‪In this episode, we discuss the myths, iconography, and cultic worship of Hephaistos (the god of fire, metalworking, and blacksmiths) and Hermes (the messenger god of trade, deceit, travelers, and borders)

068 Travel, Trade, and Work
In this episode, we discuss the various ways in which the ancient Greeks traveled, whether it was via land or sea; the physical layout of the port of Piraeus and the commercial activity that took place there; the mining district of Thorikos and how silver was mined for coinage and how coins were struck; farming techniques and how produce/goods were sold in the agora; the various types of manufacturing workshops at Athens and how they operated; and the disdain that the elites held for the merchant and manufacturing classes

069 Slaves and Foreigners
In this episode, we discuss the notion of the barbaroi in Greek culture; the origins and philosophical theories for slavery; and the legal status and type of roles (and importance) that slaves and metics (foreign residents) had in the Athenian economy

**Special Guest Episode on Roman Slavery and Gladiators w/Fiona Radford**
In this special guest episode, I am joined by Dr Fiona Radford, expert on Rome in Film and Spartacus, to discuss slavery in the ancient Roman Republic and Empire and compare/contrast it with ancient Greece (plus lots on gladiators and Spartacus!)

070 Aphrodite: The Goddess of Seduction
In this episode, we discuss the myths, iconography, and cultic worship of Aphrodite, the goddess of beauty, love, sexual pleasure, and procreation

071 Love, Sex, and Prostitution
In this episode, we discuss Greek love and sexuality by examining the formal social institution known as pederasty; the various philosophical theories of love as described by Plato (through various speakers) in his treatise, the Symposium; the various methods in which Athenian males (and non-citizen women) were able to have sex; the depiction of nudity and genitalia in art and masturbation; the various types of female and male prostitutes; pictorial and medical evidence for the daily life of prostitutes and philosophical and comedic representation of prostitution; and the lives of several famous hetairai (Rhodopis, Thargelia, Aspasia, Phryne, and Neaira)

**Special Guest Episode on Roman Sexuality w/Aven McMaster**
In this special guest episode, I am joined by Dr Aven McMaster of the Endless Knot to discuss love, sex, and prostitution from the Roman perspective and compare/contrast it with ancient Greece

072 The Wrathful Queen
In this episode, we discuss the myths, iconography, and cultic worship of Hera, the queen of the heavens and wife of Zeus, and the guardian of women, marriage, childbirth, and the family unit

073 The Oikos and Private Life
In this episode, we discuss the basic designs of ancient Greek homes and what type of furniture, decoration, lighting, and so forth might have been found in them; the physical and idealistic separation between the gynakeion (women's quarters) and the andron (men's quarters); the pitfalls to ancient Athens as an urban city (such as the street-side defecation), as well as the benefits (such as the gymnasia); the religious sphere of the oikos, particularly the role that Hestia's veneration played in it; and the different type of clothing, jewelry, and hairstyles one might have seen on an ancient Athenian man or woman

074 Marriage and Domesticity
In this episode, we discuss the legal status of women in Ancient Greece (including the dowry and the epikleros), the betrothal and marriage rituals, and the ideal of separation and seclusion for women (the evidence for and against it)

075 Pregnancy, Contraception, and Abortion
In this episode, we discuss the medical and philosophical writings on women’s bodies, particularly the Hippocratic Corpus and Aristotle, on the topics of menstruation, pregnancy, and the “wandering womb”; the various methods and techniques for contraception, abortion, and exposure; the legal procedure for divorces (usually due to childlessness and adultery); and the ways in which adulterers were punished in ancient Greece

**Special Guest Episode on Roman Women and Religion w/Peta Greenfield**
In this special guest episode, I am joined by Dr Peta Greenfield of the Partial Historians to compare/contrast certain aspects of Women and Religion between the ancient Greeks and Romans (highlights include Bona Dea, the Thesmophoria, the Vestal Virgins, Hestia and the hearth, women’s role in ritual weaving, the role of women in service to gods rather than goddesses, household religion, Bacchanalia, orgies, sex workers, and much more!)

076 Artemis: Goddess of the Young
In this episode, we discuss the myths, iconography, and cultic worship of Artemis, the virgin goddess of the hunt, the wilderness, the moon, and the protector of the young

077 From Childbirth to Adolescence
In this episode, we discuss what it was was like in ancient Athens for a young girl or boy from birth to adolescence, by looking at childbirth, childhood, the various rites of passages that they must surpass on the way to becoming teenagers, the paideia education system (both Old and New) and finally the training young boys undertook in order to be accepted as a hoplite citizen warrior

078 Healing and Medicine
In this episode, we discuss healing and medicine in the ancient Greek world by looking at Asklepios, Asklepieia, and the earliest physicians; Hippocrates, the Hippocratic School of Medicine, and the Hippocratic Corpus; and bacterial/viral diseases, mental diseases, and disabilities

079 Old Age, Death, and Burial
In this episode, we discuss what life was like for the elderly in ancient Greece, the liminal stage between life and death, the rituals and importance of the funeral and burial, the archaeology of the Kerameikos in Athens and its significance in our understanding of Greek funerary practices, the importance of the demosion sema and epitaphios logos in Athenian democracy, and the evolution of Greek funerary monuments from the archaic into the Hellenistic period

080 Hekate and Magic
In this episode, we discuss the myths, iconography, and cultic worship of Hekate, the goddess associated with magic, sorcery, witchcraft, knowledge of herbs and poisonous plants, crossroads, entrance-ways, ghosts, and necromancy; including her connections and/or syncretizations with Iphigenia, Artemis, Selene, the Fures, the Keres, the Semnai Theai, Empousa, Lamia, Circe, and Medea; and the "monstrous craft" of magikos in ancient Greece, including curse tablets, binding spells, love spells, potions, and amulets

081 Orphism, Omens, and Oracles
In this episode, we discuss the myths, iconography, and cultic worship of Orpheus and his Mysteries; the Orphic Hymns and the Orphic Theogony; the Orphic Hymn to Melinoe and her connection to the Mysteries, Hekate, and Hermes Psychopompos; the roles of omens, divination, and itinerant seers (including the mythic figures of Tiresias, Mopsus, and Chalcias, as well as historical figures like Lampon); and the roles of oracles (including the myths and cultic worship of Apollo in regard to Delphi, Python, the Pythia, the Sibyl, and Daphne, as well as the archaeological evidence, rituals, and importance of the oracles at Delphi, those in Boeotia, and those in Ionia (ex. Didyma and Claros)

082 Apollo: Leader of the Muses
In this episode, we discuss the myths, iconography, and cultic worship of Apollo, the god of music, poetry, prophecy, truth, healing, medicine, plague, light, and knowledge, who served as a kind of symbol for young Greek boys to emulate

083 Eleatics and Atomists
In this episode, part one of four on a series on Greek philosophy, mathematics, and science in the 5th century BC, we describe the lives, influences, and various theories put forth by the Eleatic School (Parmenides, Zeno, and Melissus) and the so-called Atomists (Leucippus and Democritus)

084 Pluralists and Other Physiologoi
In this episode, part two of four on a series on Greek philosophy, mathematics, and science in the 5th century BC, we describe the lives, influences, and various theories put forth by the Pluralist School (Anaxagoras, Empedocles, and Archelaus), as well as by various other Pre-Socratic physiologoi (aka natural philosophers) not associated with a particular school, such as Hippon and Diogenes of Apollonia, and the philosopher/medical theorist Alcmeon

085 Mathematics and Early Pythagoreans
In this episode, part three of four on a series on Greek philosophy, mathematics, and science in the 5th century BC, we describe the lives, influences, and various theories and discoveries made by Greece's earliest mathematicians, including Thales, Pythagoras, Hippasus and the early Pythagoreans, Oenopides, Hippocrates, Antiphon, Bryson, Democritus, and Theodoros

086 Early Astronomy
In this episode, part four of four on a series on Greek philosophy, mathematics, and science in the 5th century BC, we describe the earliest astronomical observations and calculations in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt and their influence on ancient Greek astronomy; the various planets and star constellations found in Greek literature, as well as the origins of the Zodiac; the earliest Greek astronomical speculations of the universe found in Greek mythology (Homer and Hesiod) and in Pre-Socratic philosophy; the Pythagorean model of the universe put forward by Philolaus; and the astronomical calculations made by Oenopides and Meton

087 Rhetoric and the Sophists
In this episode, we describe the development of rhetoric in the ancient Greek world as an art that could be studied and employed in the law courts and politics, and its importance especially in Classical Athens; the roles and various opinions of the Sophists, who were lecturers that traveled from city to city, teaching not only rhetoric but also all of the other subjects that were not being covered by traditional education; and the lives, influences, writings, and various theories put forth by the earliest Rhetoricians and Sophists, including Protagoras, Gorgias, Antiphon, Hippias, Prodicus, and Thrasymachus, as well as synopses on four of Plato's dialogues (Protagoras, Gorgias, Hippias Major, and Hippias Minor)

088 Thucydides and Periclean Politics
In this episode, we discuss the life, influences, drawbacks, and positives of the “Father of Scientific History”, Thucydides (ca. 460-395 BC); the nature of Athenian politics and of political organizations in the time of Pericles; and the domestic political scene in Athens in the late 440s and early 430s BC, including the ideological clash between Pericles and the conservative Thucydides (not the historian) and the series of personal and judicial attacks on Pericles and his three closest associates (Phidias, Aspasia, and Anaxagoras)

089 The Breakdown of Peace
In this episode, we discuss the mid-5th century BC history of two areas that were important economically and politically to Athens--the west (the Sicel Revolt, Syracuse's defeat of Akragas, the establishment of the panhellenic colony of Thurii, and new Athenian alliances with Segesta, Leontini, and Rhegium) and the northeast (the founding of Brea and Amphipolis on the Strymon River and the rise of the Odrysrian kingdom of Thrace and the Spartokid dynasty of the Bosporan Kingdom); Athens' growing hostilities with Macedon; and the breakdown of the Thirty Years' Peace treaty (its inadequacies, the Samian Revolt, and Corcyraean/Corinthian hostilities with the battles of Leukimme and Sybota)

090 The Road to War
In this episode, we discuss the two events over 433/2 BC that led Pericles to claim that he could see war "coming out of the Peloponnese" (the Potidaea Revolt and the Megarian Embargo); the speeches given by the Corinthians, Spartans, and Athenians on the eve of war; and both sides' financial and military resources, war arms, and tactical strategies

091 Attrition and Plague
In this episode, we discuss the first year and a half of the war (431-430 BC), as both Sparta and Athens initiated their war strategies, including a Theban sneak attack on Plataea that began the war, Peloponnesian land raids on Attica, Athenian naval raids on the Peloponnese and northwestern Greece, Athenian alliances with Odrysian Thrace, a famous funeral oration by Pericles, and a deadly plague that devastated Athens

092 The End of an Era (Part II)
In this episode, we discuss the years 430 and 429 BC of the Peloponnesian War, including a failed Spartan invasion of Zakynthos and Acarnania, Phormio's naval victories at Rhium and Naupactus, an Athenian debacle at Spartolos, the end of the siege of Potidaea, the death of Pericles and Phormio, and a Thracian invasion of Macedonia

093 Revolt in the Empire
In this episode, we discuss the years 428 and 427 BC of the Peloponnesian War, including the introduction of Kleon and Nikias, the revolt of Mytilene (Lesbos) from the Athenian empire, and a "prison-style breakout" from Plataea

094 New Leaders and New Strategies
In this episode, we discuss the years 427 and 426 BC of the Peloponnesian War, including the destruction of Plataea, civil wars in both Megara and Corcyra, and Athenian campaigns in Sicily, central Greece, and northwestern Greece

095 The Greek World Turned Upside Down
In this episode, we discuss the years 426 and 425 BC of the Peloponnesian War, including the current nature of Athenian politics as dominated by Kleon the anti-aristocratic demagogue, his feud with Aristophanes as seen in the comedic plays "The Acharnians" and "The Knights", the Battles of Pylos and Sphacteria that turned the Greek world upside down, and the brutal conclusion to the Corcyraean civil war

096 Athens on the Offensive
In this episode, we discuss the years 425 and 424 BC of the Peloponnesian War, including the conclusion of the First Sicilian Expedition and the Congress of Gela, the Athenian seizure of Kythera, the Battles of Megara and Delium, and the beginning of Brasidas' Thracian campaign

097 The Road to Peace
In this episode, we discuss the years 423-421 BC of the Peloponnesian War, including the death of Artaxerxes and the succession struggle that ends with Darius II on the Persian throne; the continuation of Brasidas' Thracian and Macedonian campaign; the ‘Wasps’ and ‘Peace’ by Aristophanes; and the deaths of Brasidas and Kleon during the second battle of Amphipolis, culminating in the “Peace of Nikias” and the end of the Archidamian War

098 The Peace Unravels
In this episode, we discuss the years 421-418 BC of the Peloponnesian War, including the breakdowns of the Peace of Nikias; the rise of Alcibiades to prominence at Athens; the differences that arose between Sparta and some of their dissident allies; the diplomatic maneuverings that resulted in the quadruple alliance between Athens, Argos, Mantinea, and Elis; and the decisive Spartan victory at the Battle of Mantinea

099 Frustrations and Poor Decisions
In this episode, we discuss the years 417-415 BC of the Peloponnesian War, including the ostracism of Hyperbolus, the rivalry of Nikias and Alcibiades, the siege of Melos, the lead up and first year of the Sicilian Expedition, and the prosecutions for the Hermai and Eleusinian Mysteries scandals

100 The Sicilian Stalemate
In this episode, we discuss the years 415-414 BC of the Peloponnesian War, including the Athenian attempt at blockading Syracuse, the death of Lamachos, the tactical blunders of Nikias, the arrival of Gylippus, and the "Birds" of Aristophanes

101 Disaster in Sicily
In this episode, we discuss the year 413 BC of the Peloponnesian War, including the rise of Archelaus to the Macedonian throne, the Spartan establishment of Decelea, the defeats by the Athenian army and navy at Syracuse, and the retreat and ultimate surrender of the Athenians, which brought the Sicilian Expedition to an end

102 Livin' on a (Persian) Prayer
In this episode, we discuss the years 413-412 BC of the Peloponnesian War, including the Athenian response at home to the Sicilian Disaster, the Spartan and Theban devastation of Attic agriculture and commerce from Decelea, the dissolution of the "friendship" between Athens and Persia, the Spartans' building up of a navy and encouraging of revolts of Athenian subject-allies, the shifting of the war to the eastern Aegean, and a series of treaties are made between Sparta and the Persian satrap Tissaphernes

103 An Oligarchic Coup
In this episode, we discuss the years 411-410 BC of the Peloponnesian War, including the third and final treaty between the Spartans and Tissaphernes; the comedic plays "Lysistrata" and "Thesmophorizusai" by Aristophanes; how the Athenians succumbed to civil war for the first time in nearly a century and saw an overthrow of their democracy by what is known as the 400; the vicissitudes of this new oligarchic government; and how factionalism between extremists and moderates led to its downfall

104 The (Democratic) Empire Strikes Back
In this episode, we discuss the years 411-410 BC of the Peloponnesian War, including the shifting of the naval war to the Hellespont, the vigor that the Athenian democracy at Samos showed in carrying on the war effort against Sparta and Pharnabazos with victories at Cynossema and Cyzicus, the re-establishment of the radical democracy at Athens, and the transition from the historical account of Thucydides into that of Xenophon's Hellenica

105 Carthage Enters the War
In this episode, we discuss the Second Greco-Punic War (410-404 BC), as hostilities between Segesta and Selinus draw both Carthage to Sicily and the Syracusan fleet back from the eastern Aegean and the Hellespont, including Hannibal Mago's first invasion of Sicily and the destruction of Selinus and Himera, the rebellion of the previously exiled Hermocrates, the rise of Dionysius as tyrant of Syracuse, Hannibal Mago's second invasion of Sicily and the destruction of Akragas and Gela, and finally, the war’s ceasefire which would see Carthage and Syracuse (under Dionysius) as the dual hegemons of Sicily

106 Frustrations and Poor Decisions (Part II)
In this episode, we discuss the years 409-406 BC of the Peloponnesian War, including the Athenians’ achieving control in the Hellespont and Bosporus, Alcibiades’ triumphant return to Athens, the ascension of Lysander and his bromance with Cyrus, the Athenian defeat at Notium and the disgrace of Alcibiades, Kallikratidas victory over Konon at Mytilene, and the subsequent Battle of Arginusae with its disastrous consequences for the Athenians
In this episode, we discuss the final two years of the Peloponnesian War (405-404 BC), including the comedic play "The Frogs" by Aristophanes; Lysander's elevation to Persian satrap, his rebuilding of the Peloponnesian fleet, his tactical moves in the Hellespont, and his crushing victory over the Athenians at Aegospotami; the besiegement and blockade of Athens; and the Athenians' surrender and the terms of the peace treaty

108 The Thirty Tyrants
109 Socrates
110 Xenophon and the 10,000
111 The Spartan Hegemony
112 The Corinthian War
113 Livin' on a Persian Prayer (Part II)
114 The Third Greco-Punic War
115 Dionysios Invades Italy
116 Plato
2nd Athenian League
Hegemony of Thebes
Attic Orators
Late Classical Literature
Late Classical Art and Architecture
The Rise of Macedon
Philip and Demosthenes
The Macedonian Conquest of Greece
Arrian and the Early Life of Alexander
The Conquest of Asia Minor and Syria
The Conquest of Egypt and Babylon
The Conquest of the Persian Heartland and India
Return to Babylon and the Death of Alexander


THE FOLLOWING EPISODES TO BE DETERMINED (potential topics to be discussed)

Wars of the Diadochi (322-275 BC)
The Antigonids
The Seleucids
The Ptolemies

Agathocles of Syracuse (317-289 BC)

The Hellenization of the eastern Mediterranean
Hellenistic Religions
Hellenistic Philosophy
Library of Alexandria and works of Hellenistic Scholars
Hellenistic Literature/New Comedy
Hellenistic Math, Science, and Medicine
Hellenistic Art and Architecture
Hellenistic Warfare

Early Rome
Coming of the Latins and the Genesis of Rome
Mythical/Regnal Rome
The Republic
The Struggle of the Orders
Roman Imperialism in Italy
Early Roman Republican Societal Structure and Values

The 3rd/2nd centuries BC
Epirus and the Pyrrhic War
Antigonus II
1st Punic War (in Sicily)
Ptolemy II, Antiochus I and II and the 1st and 2nd Syrian War
Ptolemy III, Seleucus II and III and the 3rd Syrian War
Demetrius II and Antigonus III
Philip V and the Social War
Ptolemy IV, Antiochus III and the 4th Syrian War
1st and 2nd Illyrian Wars
2nd Punic War (Massalia and in Magna Graecia)
1st Macedonian War
Philip V and the Cretan War
Ptolemy V/Antiochus III and the 5th Syrian War
2nd Macedonian and Spartan Wars
Aeolian, Syrian & Galatian Wars
3rd Macedonian & Illyrian Wars
Ptolemy VI, Seleucus IV and Antiochus IV and the 6th Syrian War
The Maccabean Revolt
4th Macedonian and Achaean Wars/Conquest of Greece
Senatorial Oligarchy and Roman Society in the late Republic
The Origins of Latin Literature
Reform Program and Ambitions of the Gracchi

Tour of the major Hellenistic Cities and Kingdoms
Hellenistic Athens
Pergamum and the Attalid Dynasty
Greco-Bactrian kingdom
Bosporus kingdom/Spartocid Dynasty
Bithynia, Galatia, and Pontus
Indo-Greek Kingdom
Parthian Empire
Hellenistic Massalia

The Mediterranean becomes Roman
The Ptolemaic Dynastic Wars
The Seleucid Dynastic Wars
Hasmonean Dynasty in Judea
First and Second Mithradatic Wars
Pompey's Eastern Campaigns/Conquest of Seleucids
Crassus' failed Parthian War
Caesar's Civil War
Octavian vs Antony & Cleopatra/Conquest of Ptolemies
Literature in the late Republic
The Hellenistic impact on Rome

Greece in the Roman Period
Greek Literature in the Roman Period
The Origins of Christianity in the Greek East
Hadrian the Philhellene
The end of Greco-Roman paganism/closing of sanctuaries
Greece in the Byzantine Period
Greece in the Ottoman Period
Greek antiquarianism
Greece's War of Independence
Modern Greece
Walking tours of archaeological sites in Greece/Turkey

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