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Monday, July 25, 2016

016 - The "Age of Tyranny"

In this episode, we discuss the new political phenomena arising in various parts of the Greek world in the 7th and 6th centuries BC, called tyranny, by focusing on four poleis in the Peloponnese in particular: Pheidon of Argos, Cypselus and Periander of Corinth, Cleisthenes of Sicyon, and Theogenes of Megara

747 BC - the last king of Corinth, Telestes, was overthrown, resulting in the city being ran by a royal clan, called the Bacchiadai
733 BC - the Corinthians founded Syracuse and Corcyra
ca. 725-700 BC - the trireme was developed at Corinth
ca. 700 BC - The Megarians drove out hostile invaders (possibly Corinth?) from their city
685 BC - the Megarians founded Chalcedon on the Asiatic side of the Bosporus
669 BC - The Argives defeated the Spartans at the battle of Hysiae, possibly the event that allowed Pheidon to become tyrant of Argos
668 BC - Pisa gained control of the Olympic sanctuary from Elis, with the help of Pheidon and his newly minted hoplite army; the Megarians founded Byzantion on the European side of the Bosporus
664 BC - the first Greek sea-battle took place between Corinth and its colony, Corcyra
657-627 BC - Kypselos overthrows the Bacchiadai ruling clan and establishes himself as tyrant of Corinth
ca. 650 BC - Orthagoras becomes tyrant of Sicyon; Theagenes becomes tyrant of Megara
632 BC - Cylon unsuccessfully attempted to install himself as tyrant of Athens, with the aid of Theagenes
627-585 BC - Periander succeeded his father as tyrant of Corinth, and established Corinth as the most prosperous city-state in the Greek world, although paranoia set in and his rule grew harsher and harsher
ca. 600-570 BC - Cleisthenes becomes tyrant of Sicyon
595-585 BC - Cleisthenes of Sicyon and the Amphictyons led the defense of Delphi against the Phocian town of Krissa in the First Sacred War
585-583 BC - Periander's nephew, Psammetikos, ruled as tyrant, but he felt the brunt of Corinthian anger towards his uncle's harshness and was deposed
582 BC - the Corinthians established the Isthmian Games to celebrate the end of the Cypselid tyranny; the Delphians established the Pythian Games to celebrate their freedom from Krissa
570-556 BC - Cleisthenes' successor, Aeschines,  ruled as tyrant until he was expelled by the Spartans

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Monday, July 18, 2016

015 - Colonization and the East

In this episode, we discuss the Greek emigration eastward into the Chalcidice Peninsula, Thrace, the  Hellespont, the Bosporus, the Black Sea, and northern Africa during the 7th and 6th centuries BC; their relations with the Lydians and Egyptians until around 550 BC; and the development of coinage

ca. 700 BC - the Euboeans established colonies on the coasts of Macedon and the Chalcidice Peninsula
ca. 700-675 BC - Cimmerian invaders overran the Phrygian kingdom of central Anatolia, whose king Mita (Midas?) committed suicide
685 BC - the Megarians founded Chalcedon on the Asiatic side of the Bosporus
668 BC - the Megarians founded  Byzantion on the European side of the Bosporus
ca. 680-645 BC - Gyges overthrew Candaules and established the Mermnad ruling dynasty of Lydia; Gyges captured Colophon and Magnesia and brought the Troad under his control, but he was unable to defeat Smyrna, Miletus, and Ephesus and thus entered into alliances
ca. 675-600 BC - the Milesians founded colonies in the Troad and on the southern and western shores of the Black Sea region
ca. 665-610 BC - Psammetichos I overthrows the Assyrian yoke over Egypt and establishes native rule; with the help of Ionian and Carian mercenaries, he consolidates his hold over the Nile Delta
ca. 650 BC - Klazomenai founded Abdera on the Thracian coastline in the northern Aegean Sea
ca. 645-625 BC - the Lydian king, Ardys, pushed out the Cimmerians and extended Lydian power eastward to the Halys River; warred with Miletus unsuccessfully but was able to defeat Priene
ca. 630 BC - the Therans founded Cyrene on the African coastline in Libya
ca. 630-600 BC - Battus I rules over Cyrene
ca. 625-610 BC - the Lydian king, Sadyattes, sacked Smyrna, suffered a huge defeat against Klazomenai, and led yearly campaigns against Miletus
ca. 610-560 BC - the Lydian king, Alyattes, due to the cunning of the Milesian tyrant Thrasybulus, sued for peace after 17 years of war; Alyattes also fell for trick by Bias that led him to sue for peace with Priene too
ca. 600 BC - the Egyptian pharaoh, Necho, sent out an expedition of Phoenician, who sailed from the Red Sea westward entirely around the coast of Africa, returning through the Pillars of Hercules to the mouth of the Nile
ca. 600-550 BC - Greek settlements sprang up in the more remote parts of the Black Sea in Colchis and Scythia by the Milesians
600-583 BC - Arkesilaos I rules over Cyrene
585 BC - the battle of the Halys River between the Lydians and the Medes ends in a draw due to the total eclipse of the sun (predicted by Thales)
583-560 BC - Under the rule of Battus II, an influx of Greek migrants reinforced Cyrene at the behest of the Delphic oracle; this led the local Libyan tribes to seek an alliance with the Egyptian pharaoh, Apries 
ca. 570 BC - the Cyrenaeans under Battus II defeated the Egyptians under Apries, resulting in the overthrow of Apries and the ascendency of Amasis II; the Greeks established Naukratis in the Nile Delta; the use of silver coins reached the Ionian Greeks via the Lydians and it quickly spread to the rest of the Greek world
560-550 BC - the Cyrenean king, Arkesilaos II, was a brutal ruler, leading to a revolt, assisted by the Libyans, and the ascendancy of Battus III
560-546 BC - the Lydian king, Croesus, subdued the Carians and Ephesians

Location of Lydia within Anatolia

Ruins of Gordion 3.JPG

Map of Lydia ancient times-en.svg

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Saturday, July 9, 2016

014 - Colonization and the West

In this episode, we discuss the causes of colonization (shortage of land and trade); the Greek emigration westward into Italy, Sicily, France, Spain, Corsica, and Sardinia during the 8th, 7th, and 6th centuries BC; the development of the trireme; and their growing tensions with the Etruscans and Phoenicians (Carthaginians) until around 550 BC

ca. 775-750 BC - a group of colonists from Chalcis and Eretria in Euboea and from Cyme in Aeolus, together with the Phoenicians, established a colony at Pithekoussai on the island of Ischia in the Bay of Naples
ca. 740 BC - the Euboeans established a colony at Cumae, directly adjacent of Ischia on the Italian mainland, making it the oldest Greek-only colony in the west and giving them access to the Etruscans
734 BC - the Chalcidians founded the first Greek Sicilian colony, Naxos, on the northeastern coast of the island
733 BC - the Corinthians founded Syracuse and Corcyra
728 BC - the Chalcidians founded Leontini and Catana
726 BC - the Megarians founded Megara Hyblea
ca. 725-700 BC - the trireme was developed at Corinth
725 BC - the Chalcidians founded Zancle
720 BC - the Chalcidians founded Rhegium; the Achaeans founded Sybaris
710 BC - the Achaeans founded Kroton
706 BC - the Spartans founded Taras
ca. 700 BC - the Achaeans founded Metapontion
688 BC - the Rhodians and Cretans founded Gela
ca. 680 BC - the Locrians founded Locri
ca. 630 BC - the Greeks began to move away from the eastern side of the island, as Zancle founded Himera in north central Sicily and Megara Hyblea founded Selinus in southwestern Sicily, bringing the Greeks into contact with the Elymians and Phoenician colonies in west Sicily
ca. 600 BC - the Sybarites founded Poseidonia; the Phocaeans founded Massalia--the first Greek settlement in France, but in order to do so they had to defeat the Carthaginians in a naval battle south of France 
ca. 580 BC - the Greeks first engaged in hostilities with the Elymians of Segesta and the Phoenician colonists on Sicily, who in turn formed a military alliance with the powerful Etruscans of central Italy; as a result, the Greeks founded Lipara, the largest of the Aeolian Islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the northern coast of Sicily, to keep a watch against the Etruscan pirates; Gela founded Akragas on south central Sicily
ca. 575 BC - the Phocaeans founded Emporion on northeastern coast of Spain, further encroaching on Carthaginian-owned territory in Spain
570-554 BC - the tyrant Phalaris quickly turned Akragas into a regional power
ca. 560 BC - the Phocaeans founded Olbia on the northeastern coast of Sardinia and at Alalia on the eastern coast of Corsica
546 BC - Cyrus the Great of Persia sacked Phocaea, forcing the Phocaeans to flee westward to their colonies; some founded Elea on the Tyrrhenian coastline, making it the last of the Greek settlements in Italy during this great period of Greek colonization

File:Sicily prehellenic topographic map.svg

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The Maritime History Podcast Episode 026 Sailing Advice from Hesiod, the Farmer-Poet
The Maritime History Podcast Episode 027 Odysseus Builds a Boat

Friday, July 1, 2016

013 - Hoplite Warfare

In this episode, we discuss the revolutionary changes in warfare that took place in the 8th and 7th centuries BC that were strictly Greek and reflect the abstract nature of the polis; the cult of the bloodlust god, Ares; and the Lelantine War, the first large-scale war on the Greek record after the mythical Trojan War and the first instance in which these military changes were employed

ca. 725-650 BC - the Levantine War took place pitting Eretria, Miletus, Aegina,  Megara, and Chios versus Chalcis, Samos, Corinth, Erythrai, and Thessaly
ca. 700 BC - Lefkandi was destroyed, probably by Chalcis
ca. 650 BC - the Chigi vase is the earliest depiction of hoplite warfare in art