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Monday, July 18, 2016

015 - Colonization and the East

In this episode, we discuss the Greek emigration eastward into the Chalcidice Peninsula, Thrace, the  Hellespont, the Bosporus, the Black Sea, and northern Africa during the 7th and 6th centuries BC; their relations with the Lydians and Egyptians until around 550 BC; and the development of coinage

ca. 700 BC - the Euboeans established colonies on the coasts of Macedon and the Chalcidice Peninsula
ca. 700-675 BC - Cimmerian invaders overran the Phrygian kingdom of central Anatolia, whose king Mita (Midas?) committed suicide
685 BC - the Megarians founded Chalcedon on the Asiatic side of the Bosporus
668 BC - the Megarians founded  Byzantion on the European side of the Bosporus
ca. 680-645 BC - Gyges overthrew Candaules and established the Mermnad ruling dynasty of Lydia; Gyges captured Colophon and Magnesia and brought the Troad under his control, but he was unable to defeat Smyrna, Miletus, and Ephesus and thus entered into alliances
ca. 675-600 BC - the Milesians founded colonies in the Troad and on the southern and western shores of the Black Sea region
ca. 665-610 BC - Psammetichos I overthrows the Assyrian yoke over Egypt and establishes native rule; with the help of Ionian and Carian mercenaries, he consolidates his hold over the Nile Delta
ca. 650 BC - Klazomenai founded Abdera on the Thracian coastline in the northern Aegean Sea
ca. 645-625 BC - the Lydian king, Ardys, pushed out the Cimmerians and extended Lydian power eastward to the Halys River; warred with Miletus unsuccessfully but was able to defeat Priene
ca. 630 BC - the Therans founded Cyrene on the African coastline in Libya
ca. 630-600 BC - Battus I rules over Cyrene
ca. 625-610 BC - the Lydian king, Sadyattes, sacked Smyrna, suffered a huge defeat against Klazomenai, and led yearly campaigns against Miletus
ca. 610-560 BC - the Lydian king, Alyattes, due to the cunning of the Milesian tyrant Thrasybulus, sued for peace after 17 years of war; Alyattes also fell for trick by Bias that led him to sue for peace with Priene too
ca. 600 BC - the Egyptian pharaoh, Necho, sent out an expedition of Phoenician, who sailed from the Red Sea westward entirely around the coast of Africa, returning through the Pillars of Hercules to the mouth of the Nile
ca. 600-550 BC - Greek settlements sprang up in the more remote parts of the Black Sea in Colchis and Scythia by the Milesians
600-583 BC - Arkesilaos I rules over Cyrene
585 BC - the battle of the Halys River between the Lydians and the Medes ends in a draw due to the total eclipse of the sun (predicted by Thales)
583-560 BC - Under the rule of Battus II, an influx of Greek migrants reinforced Cyrene at the behest of the Delphic oracle; this led the local Libyan tribes to seek an alliance with the Egyptian pharaoh, Apries 
ca. 570 BC - the Cyrenaeans under Battus II defeated the Egyptians under Apries, resulting in the overthrow of Apries and the ascendency of Amasis II; the Greeks established Naukratis in the Nile Delta; the use of silver coins reached the Ionian Greeks via the Lydians and it quickly spread to the rest of the Greek world
560-550 BC - the Cyrenean king, Arkesilaos II, was a brutal ruler, leading to a revolt, assisted by the Libyans, and the ascendancy of Battus III
560-546 BC - the Lydian king, Croesus, subdued the Carians and Ephesians

Location of Lydia within Anatolia

Ruins of Gordion 3.JPG

Map of Lydia ancient times-en.svg

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