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Monday, July 18, 2016

015 - Colonization and the East

In this episode, we discuss the Greek emigration northeastward into the Chalkidiki, Thrace, Hellespont, Bosporus, Black Sea, and southwards into northern Africa during the 7th and 6th centuries BC; the reigns of the Lydian and Egyptian kings of the 26th Saite Dynasty and their relations with the Greeks until around 550 BC; and the development of coinage (first in Lydia and then its widespread adoption and adaptation by the Greeks in the 6th century BC)

ca. 700 BC - the Euboeans (particularly Chalcis), as well as Corinth, established colonies on the coasts of Macedon and the Chalcidice Peninsula
ca. 700-675 BC - Cimmerian invaders overran the Phrygian kingdom of central Anatolia, whose king Mita (Midas?) committed suicide
685 BC - the Megarians founded Chalcedon on the Asiatic side of the Bosporus
668 BC - the Megarians founded  Byzantion on the European side of the Bosporus
ca. 680-645 BC - Gyges overthrew Candaules and established the Mermnad ruling dynasty of Lydia; Gyges captured Colophon and Magnesia and brought the Troad under his control, but he was unable to defeat Smyrna, Miletus, and Ephesus and thus entered into alliances
ca. 675-600 BC - the Milesians founded colonies in the Troad and on the southern (Anatolian) and western (Thracian) shores of the Black Sea region
ca. 665-610 BC - Psammetichos (Psamtik) overthrows the Assyrian yoke over Egypt and establishes native rule (26th Saite Dynasty), and with the help of Ionian and Carian mercenaries, he consolidates his hold over the Nile Delta
ca. 650 BC - Klazomenai founded Abdera on the Thracian coastline in the northern Aegean
ca. 645-625 BC - the Lydian king, Ardys, pushed out the Cimmerians from his land and extended Lydian power eastwards to the border of the Halys River; warred with Miletus unsuccessfully but was able to defeat Priene
ca. 630 BC - the Therans founded Cyrene on the African coastline in Libya
ca. 630-600 BC - Battus rules over Cyrene
ca. 625-610 BC - the Lydian king, Sadyattes, sacked Smyrna, suffered a huge defeat against Klazomenai, and led yearly campaigns against Miletus
ca. 610-560 BC - the Lydian king, Alyattes, due to the cunning of the Milesian tyrant Thrasybulus, sued for peace after 17 years of war; Alyattes also fell for trick by Bias that led him to sue for peace with Priene too
ca. 600 BC - the Egyptian pharaoh, Necho, sent out an expedition of Phoenician, who sailed from the Red Sea westward entirely around the coast of Africa, returning through the Pillars of Hercules to the mouth of the Nile
ca. 600-550 BC - Greek settlements sprang up in the more remote parts of the Black Sea in Colchis and Scythia by the Milesians
600-583 BC - Arkesilaos rules over Cyrene
585 BC - the battle of the Halys River between the Lydians and the Medes ends in a draw due to the total eclipse of the sun (predicted by Thales)
583-560 BC - Under the rule of Battus II, an influx of Greek migrants reinforced Cyrene at the behest of the Delphic oracle; this led the local Libyan tribes, fearful of their intentions, to seek an alliance with the Egyptian pharaoh, Apries 
ca. 570 BC - the Cyrenaeans under Battus II defeated the Egyptians under Apries, resulting in the overthrow of Apries and the ascendency of Amasis II; the Greeks established Naukratis in the Nile Delta; the use of silver coins reached the Ionian Greeks via the Lydians and it quickly spread to the rest of the Greek world
560-550 BC - the Cyrenean king, Arkesilaos II, was a brutal ruler, leading to a revolt, assisted by the Libyans, and the ascendancy of Battus III
560-546 BC - the Lydian king, Croesus, subdued the Carians and Ephesians

Greek wordstyrannos (i.e. tyrant, unconstitutional monarch), drachme (i.e. drachma, silver currency that literally means a "grasp" or "handful"), obolos (i.e. obol, six of these make a drachma, literally means a "spit")

Supplementary Resources (Videos, Photos, Other Podcasts)

Video/A Brief History of Greek Colonization (Archaia Istoria)

Map/Major Cities in Eastern Mediterranean during Archaic Period

Location of Lydia within Anatolia

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