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Thursday, April 28, 2016

007 - Late Bronze Age Collapse

In this episode, we discuss the Trojan War myth; the historical evidence for Mycenaean conflict in Anatolia; the Bronze Age collapse in both Greece and the Near East; and the so-called "Dorian Invasion" southwards into Greece

ca. 1430 BC - An anti-Hittite uprising, supported by the Ahhiyawans, forced the Hittites to put down two different rebellions in northwestern Anatolia
ca. 1400 BC - An Ahhiyawan warlord, named Attarsiya (Atreus?), attacked Hittite vassals in western Anatolia before being defeated by the Hittites
ca. 1315 BC - Another anti-Hittite uprising, with the support of the Ahhiyawans, forced the Hittites to take military action in western Anatolia
ca. 1300 BC - Troy VI is destroyed by an earthquake
ca. 1295 BC - Wilusa (Troy) is attacked by a Hittite vassal king, named Piyama-Radu (Priam?)
ca. 1280 BC - Alaksandsus (Alexander/Paris?), the king of Wilusa (Troy) signs a treaty with the Hittite king, Muwatalli II, pledging military support to any campaigns that the Hittites should enter
1274 BC - The Wilusans (Trojans) fought alongside Muwatalli II and the Hittites against Rameses II and the Egyptians in the battle of Kadesh
ca. 1250 BC - Another anti-Hittite movement broke out and was supported by the king of Ahhiyawa, resulting in Wilusa being ravaged (Trojan War?)
ca. 1250-1190 BC - Troy VIIa was destroyed by fire
ca. 1250 BC - various cities repelled invaders from the north, but heavy damage was done, leading to an increase in defensive fortifications
ca. 1230 BC - the power of the Hittites began to wane under Tudhaliya IV, after they were defeated by the Assyrians in the Battle of Nihriya
ca. 1210 BC - the Hittite king, Suppiluliuma II, had to fight off an invasion fleet coming from the direction of Cyprus using Levantine ships, including a naval battle against Alashiya off the coast of Cyprus
1207 BC - the Egyptian pharaoh, Merneptah, pushes out the so-called "Sea Peoples" from the Nile Delta
1205 BC - the Hittite capital of Hattusa was sacked and destroyed, probably by the proto-Phrygians (an Indo-European tribe from Thrace)
ca. 1200 BC - Pylos was destroyed by fire
ca. 1190-1180 BC - The fortresses of Mycenae and Tiryns were felled by an earthquake, both were able to recover but were weakened
ca. 1190 BC - Various Syrian and Canaanite cities were sacked by the Sea Peoples, notably Ugarit
1181 BC - the Egyptian pharaoh, Rameses III, pushes out the Sea Peoples again
1177 BC - Rameses III pushes out the Sea Peoples for a third time from the Nile Delta, but in the process Egyptian power was severely weakened
ca. 1150 BC - Mycenae was attacked for a second time from the north, but this time it did not recover

Recommended Sources for Further Reading:
Article/Did Climate Change Bring Down Late Bronze Age Civilizations?

Recommended Podcast Episodes for Further Listening:
History of Pirates Podcast Episode 02 Ancient Pirates & The Quest For Stuff
The Maritime History Podcast Episode 017 Black Ships on Trojan Shores
The Maritime History Podcast Episode 018 The Beginning of the End
The Maritime History Podcast Episode 019 Ugarit in Flames
The Maritime History Podcast Episode 020 The Sea Peoples Sail South: Vol. II
The Maritime History Podcast Episode 021 Early Iron Age "Balkanization"
Ancient Greece Declassified Episode 02 Bronze Age Apocalypse

Thursday, April 21, 2016

006 - Mycenaean Greece

In this episode, we discuss the archaeological evidence for the Mycenaean Greeks of the late Bronze Age, ca. 1650-1250 BC

ca. 1650-1500 BC - Grave Circles A and B at Mycenae show that the Minoans on Crete began to exercise a dominant influence on Mycenaean culture
ca. 1600 BC - two-wheeled chariots made their way to Greece, probably through the Hittites of Anatolia
ca. 1500 BC - Tholos tombs began to appear
ca. 1450-1250 BC -  the apex of Mycenaean civilization after they surpassed the Minoans as the dominant commercial power in the Aegean region
ca. 1450 BC - Linear B developed
ca. 1325 BC - Uluburun shipwreck shows extent of Mycenaean trade network
ca. 1300 BC - "Pictorial Style" in vase-painting developed
ca. 1300 BC - "Warrior Vase" shows changes in Mycenaean weaponry
ca. 1250 BC - "Lion Gate" at Mycenae was constructed

Recommended Podcast Episodes for Further Listening:

Wednesday, April 13, 2016

005 - Minoan Crete

In this episode, we discuss the myths and archaeological evidence for the Minoans on the island of Crete, who were an early source of cultural inspiration for the Mycenaean Greeks; the volcanic eruption that blew apart the island of Thera in the mid-17th century BC and was a catalyst for the decline of the Minoan civilization; and the ultimate subordination of the Minoans by the Mycenaean Greeks in the 15th and 14th centuries BC

ca. 2000-1700 BC - Proto-Palatial or "Old Palace" Period
ca. 1900 BC - Cretan Hieroglyphics developed
ca. 1800 BC - Linear A developed 
ca. 1700 BC - great earthquake destroyed the palaces at Knossos, Phaistos, Mallia, and Zakros
ca. 1700-1600 BC - Neo-Palatial or "New Palace" Period 
ca. 1650 BC - volcanic eruption on island of Thera
ca. 1450 BC - Phaistos, Mallia, and Zakros were sacked and burned by the Mycenaean Greeks
ca. 1450 BC - Linear B developed
ca. 1350 BC - Knossos was sacked and burned by the Mycenaean Greeks, marking the end of the Minoans

File:Map Minoan Crete-en.svg