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Thursday, April 21, 2016

006 - Mycenaean Greece



In this episode, we discuss the archaeological evidence of the Mycenaean Greeks of the late Bronze Age (ca. 1650-1250 BC); particularly from the major palace centers in the Argolid at Mycenae and Tiryns, Athens in Attica, the island of Salamis, Thebes and Orchomenos in Boeotia, Iolcos in Thessaly, Amyclae (which is Sparta) in Laconia, and Pylos in Messenia; what the Linear B tablets can tell us about their society, economy, and religion; and their extensive trade network that spanned the entire Mediterranean

ca. 1650-1500 BC - goods found in Grave Circles A and B at Mycenae show that the Minoans on Crete began to exercise a dominant influence on Mycenaean culture
ca. 1600 BC - two-wheeled chariots made their way to Greek mainland, probably through contact with the Hittite Empire of Anatolia (Asia Minor)
ca. 1500 BC - Tholos (beehive-shaped) tombs began to appear in Greek mainland
ca. 1450-1250 BC - the apex of Mycenaean civilization after they surpassed the Minoans as the dominant commercial power in the Aegean region
ca. 1450 BC - Linear B developed (an early form of Greek)
ca. 1325 BC - Uluburun shipwreck shows extent of Mycenaean trade network
ca. 1300 BC - "Pictorial Style" in vase-painting developed
ca. 1300 BC - "Warrior Vase" shows evolution of weaponry
ca. 1250 BC - "Lion Gate" at Mycenae was constructed

Greek wordstholos (beehive-shaped tomb), dromos (long stone-lined walkway leading to tools), megaron (rectangular-shaped audience hall), wanax (lord or master), lawagetas (second in command/leader of the people), temenos (landed estate), telestai (high ranking group, probably priests), hequetas (high ranking officers, later hetairoi), kerosija (advisors to king, later gerousia), korete (governor of district), prokerete (deputy of district), damokoro (person in charge of each district's people), damos (people, later demos), pasireu (in charge of affairs at local village level, later basileus), doero (slave, later doulos), potnia (lady or mistress), wanerkatero (belonging to the lord or master, i.e. palace slaves), rhyton (animal shaped drinking cup), metuwo newo (feast of wine), wonoqoso (wine-colored, later oinops)



Supplementary Resources (Videos, Photos, Other Podcasts)

The Heritage Podcast Episode 19 Minoans & Mycenaeans - "Before the Greeks came to inhabit the Mediterranean, the Aegean was home to two Bronze Age Civilizations: the Minoans and the Mycenaeans. We'll learn how myth and archaeology have shaped our understanding of these civilizations along with the rest of Mediterranean history."

Video/The Mycenaean Civilization








History Fan Girl Episode 05 Agamemnon's Mycenae - "John Bennet, director of the British School at Athens, discusses the Agamemnon from literature, the discovery of his mask and tomb, and how the historic Mycenaean people compare to their portrayal in literature."



Photo/The Acropolis of Mycenae

File:Mycenae 2.jpg






















The History of English Podcast Ep 12 Early Greek, Hittite and the Trojan War - "Greek and Hittite civilizations emerge from Indo-European tribes in the eastern Mediterranean. The Greeks adopt an early form of writing and fight the Trojans. An alphabet allows the ancient history of the Greeks to be recorded in the Iliad and the Odyssey."

Video/Mycenae Lower Town 3D Virtual Model







Photo/Phi-type and Psi-type Mycenaean Female Figurines

File:Phi-type and Psi-type Mycenaean Female Figurines - Museum of Cycladic Art, Athens - Joy of Museums.jpg

Maritime History Podcast Ep 09 The New Kingdom: Maritime War and Peace - "The 'war' part refers to the first several pharaohs of the New Kingdom, kings who retook Egypt from the Hyksos. Specifically, we'll look at the pharaoh Kamose' retaking of the city of Avaris, partially accomplished by amphibious assault from the Nile. We'll also see the exploits of Thutmose III, but the 'peace' part refers to Queen Hatshepsut, a woman pharaoh who ruled concurrently with Thutmose III. Hatshepsut focused on reestablishing foreign trade, and one of Egypt's most well-known temple reliefs gives us a marvelous look at a voyage to Punt that was organized by Egypt's greatest female pharaoh. Other items include a look at Min of the Desert, a full-scale reconstruction based on the Hatshepsut 'Punt' ship depictions, along with boat models from the tomb of Tutankhamun."

Video/Egyptian Pharaohs Family Tree (Dynasties 18-20)



Video/History of Ancient Egypt: The New Kingdom



Video/Ancient Egyptian Warfare and Weapons




Video/History of Battle - The Battle of Megiddo (c. 1468 BCE)



Maritime History Podcast Ep 10 Taking Care of Business (on the Nile) - "We'll look at the evidence of heavy-transport shipping throughout Egypt's history. Their many monumental building projects required the transportation of staggering amounts of material, and there is evidence from Pliny the Elder and Herodotus that much of this transport was accomplished by shipping up and down the Nile. We'll look at the various theories for how objects weighing hundreds of tons were loaded and shipped on the Nile, and we'll see a few depictions of such ships from the pyramid of Unas and the temple of Hatshepsut."

Video/The Life Of Hatshepsut: Ancient Egypt's Female Pharaoh



Wonders of the World Episode 12 The Temples of Karnak and Luxor - "We go to Luxor Egypt, ancient capital of the New Kingdom, to visit the great temples of Karnak and Luxor. We discuss Hatshepsut: a fascinating woman who became king."


Photo/Colossi of Memnon (west of Egyptian capital of Thebes)

File:Colossi of Memnon May 2015 2.JPG

Wonders of the World Episode 13 The Tombs of the Valley of the Kings - "We're sticking around Luxor, Egypt, and crossing the Nile to visit the tombs of the New Kingdom pharaohs in the Valley of the Kings. We discuss Tut and Akhenaten."

 


Video/Akhenaten: Egypt's Mystery Pharaoh


 
Maritime History Podcast Ep 14 Amarna Letters and Some Lukkan Pirates - "This time around we take a look at a few select cuneiform tablets from a collection known as the Amarna Letters. Discovered in Amarna, Egypt, these letters are a rare insight into the communication between the pharaoh and the rulers of many cities around the Bronze Age world. First, the king of Alasiya is forced to defend himself against accusations of piracy. This letter mentions the Lukkan pirates, perhaps the oldest reference to a pirate group in history. Our second letters come from Rib-Addi, the ruler of Byblos, a man under siege from both land and sea. Ultimately, the Amarna Letters help us better understand the Bronze Age Mediterranean around 1350 BCE."

The History of Egypt Podcast Ep 102 An Egyptian Odyssey (Passage to Greece) - "In 1370 BCE an Egyptian embassy may have travelled to the lands of Greece. They visited the people called Tanaiu, aka the Mycenaeans, who were a rising power in their region. From their hilltop cities, the Mycenaeans expanded their power, built magnificent tombs and worshipped some ancient but familiar deities. Let’s visit!"

The History of Egypt Podcast Ep 102b Colourful Keftiu (Twilight on Crete) - "In 1370 BCE an Egyptian embassy visited the Aegean. They came to see the Keftiu, aka the Minoans, who led a charmed life. They built enormous palace and temple cities, worshipped in sacred spaces and created beautiful art pieces. For a thousand years the Keftiu ruled Crete and enjoyed security. Until now…"

Map/Mycenaean Trade Routes

Maritime History Podcast Ep 15 The Advent of the Mycenaean Galley "We discuss the Mycenaean galley, a style of ship characterized by oared propulsion and a long, narrow hull built for speed and power rather than for transport. Depictions are numerous, so we focus on a few main items from around the Mycenaean world. We also discuss the 'Aegean List' of Amenhotep III, a list of foreign cities in the Aegean, cities which one professor believes were visited by the New Kingdom Egyptians. Finally, we also discuss a Mycenaean galley model found in a tomb in Gurob Egypt, making connections between the style in which it was decorated and the Homeric references to Achaean galleys during the Trojan War."

Maritime History Podcast Ep 16 The Ulubururn and Gelidonya Shipwrecks - "We discuss two shipwrecks from the same region of southern Turkey. The Cape Gelidonya wreck was discovered first, making it the first ancient shipwreck to have ever been fully recovered from the sea floor. The Uluburun wreck was found later, but it is the oldest shipwreck to have yielded a substantial portion of her cargo along with a portion of the ship hull. Dr. George Bass was the head of both wreck excavations, and the theory he ultimately proposed to explain the ship's and their cargo was one that revolutionized the academic community's view of trade in the Late Bronze Age Mediterranean. Were the Uluburun and Cape Gelidonya wrecks both the ill-fated remains of voyages conducted by 'proto-Phoenecian' sailors from the Levant?"

Photo/Uluburun Shipwreck in Situ





Photo/Multicultural Goods found at Uluburun Shipwreck

File:Turkey.Bodrum095.jpg

Photo/Mycenaean Gold Earring

File:Earring Mycenae Louvre Bj135.jpg

Photo/Ivory Head (from Mycenae)

File:Myken M 091029.jpg

Photo/Amphora with Octopus (from Argolid)

File:Mycenaean palace amphora, found in the Argolid, in the National Archaeological Museum in Athens.jpg

Photo/Stirrup Vase with Octopus (from Rhodes)

File:Stirrup vase Rhodes Louvre CA2906.jpg

Photo/Mycenaean Stirrup Jar (found in Ugarit)

File:Mycenaean stirrup vase Louvre AO19201.jpg


Bibliography:
* Chadwick. 1967. The Decipherment of Linear B.
* Chadwick. 1976. The Mycenaean World.
* McDonald and Thomas. 1990. Progress into the Past: The Rediscovery of Mycenaean Civilization.
* Dickinson. 1994. The Aegean Bronze Age.
* Fitton. 1998. The Discovery of the Greek Bronze Age.
* Preziosi. 2000. Aegean Art and Architecture.
* Field. 2004. Mycenaean Citadels c. 1350–1200 BC.
* Castleden. 2005. The Mycenaeans.
* Mylonas. 2006. Mycenae - A Guide to its ruins and History.
* Shelmerdine. 2008. The Cambridge Companion to the Aegean Bronze Age.
* Cline. 2010. The Oxford Handbook of the Bronze Age Aegean.
* D'Amato and Salimbeti. 2011. Bronze Age Greek Warrior 1600–1100 BC.


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