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Tuesday, August 30, 2016

022 - Sparta Ascendant

In this episode, we discuss the early history (myth?) of Sparta and its growing pains that ultimately led to its rise to hegemony over what modern scholars called the Peloponnesian League

ca. 900-800 BC - the syncoecism of the four villages on the west bank of the Eurotas River resulted in the polis of Lacadaemon (Sparta)
ca 800-750 BC - a fifth village found three miles from the other villages is incorporated into Sparta, the old Mycenaean town of Amyclae
ca. 780-750 BC - reign of Eurypontid king, Charilaus (the nephew of the semi-mythical lawgiver Lykurgas who supposedly reformed Sparta)
ca. 760-740 BC - reign of Agiad king, Teleklos
ca. 750-725 BC - reign of Eurypontid king, Nicander
ca. 740-720 BC - the First Messenian War brought about the annexation of Messenia and the formation of the helot system that transformed Sparta into a slave-holding state like no other Greek polis
ca. 740-700 BC - reign of Agiad king, Alkamenes
ca. 725-675 BC - reign of Eurypontid king, Theopompos
706 BC - illegitimate Spartans, known as "Parthenai", were exiled to Italy where they founded Taras
ca. 700-665 BC - reign of Agiad king, Polydoros
ca. 675-650 BC - the poets Alcman and Tyrtaeus flourished at Sparta
ca. 675-645 BC - reign of Eurypontid king, Anaxandridas
669 BC - the Spartans were defeated by Pheidon and the Argives at Hysiae
ca. 668-650 BC - thanks to their defeat at the hands of Argos, the helots revolted with the backing of Argos, resulting in the Second Messenian War; the Spartans, though, were able to put the revolt down thanks to the martial vigor of Tyrtaeus
ca. 665-640 BC - reign of Agiad king, Eurycrates
ca. 645-625 BC - reign of Eurypontid king, Zeuxidamas
ca. 640-615 BC - reign of Agiad king, Anaximander I
ca. 625-600 BC - reign of Eurypontid king, Anaxidamos
ca. 615-590 BC - reign of Agiad king, Eurycratides
ca. 600-575 BC - reign of Eurypontid king, Archidamos I
ca. 590-560 BC - reign of Agiad king, Leon
583 BC - Sparta may have assisted with the overthrow of the Kypselid tyranny at Corinth
ca. 575-550 BC - reign of Eurypontid king, Agasicles
572 BC - Sparta may have helped Elis regain control over the sanctuary of Olympia again from Pisa
ca. 560 BC - the "Battle of the Fetters" resulted in a devastating Spartan loss to Tegea
ca. 560-525 BC - reign of Agiad king, Anaxandridas II
556 BC - the Spartans, with Chilon as ephor, helped to overthrow the Orthagorid tyranny at Sicyon
ca. 550-515 BC - reign of Eurypontid king, Ariston
ca. 550 BC - Sparta finally subdued Tegea, but instead of conquering them, they enacted diplomacy, marking the beginnings of Peloponnesian League
547 BC - Spartans are approached by the Lydians for an alliance against Persia, but the Spartans never provide aid as they still have Argos to deal with
546 BC - the "battle of Champions" resulted in a Spartan defeat of Argos and the annexation of the region of Kynuria from the Argives
525-522 BC - the Spartans and Corinthians join together to depose Polycrates of Samos as tyrant
520-490 BC - reign of Agiad king, Kleomenes
515-491 BC - reign of Eurypontid king, Demaratos
515-512 BC - Kleomenes' half-brother, Dorieus, tried to found the colony of Cinyps on the Libyan coast but he was ultimately driven out by Carthage
510 BC - Dorieus was killed in battle against the Carthaginians as he tried to establish a second colony, this one in western Sicily 

Recommended Sources for Further Reading:

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